Marlowe at the Movies Returns!: Bogie & Bacall in THE BIG SLEEP (Warner Brothers 1946)

It’s been a long time since we last visited with Raymond Chandler’s fictional “knight-errant”, PI Philip Marlowe. Way too long, so let’s take a look at THE BIG SLEEP, starring Humphrey Bogart as the definitive screen Marlowe. This 1946 Howard Hawks film was a follow-up to 1944’s hit TO HAVE AND HAVE NOT, which introduced audiences (and Bogie) to luscious Lauren Bacall . The pair was dynamite together onscreen, and off as well, marrying a year later. Their May/December romance was one of Hollywood’s greatest love stories, lasting until Bogart’s death from cancer in 1957.

For me to try and explain the plot here would be futile, as it takes more twists and turns than a “Balinese belly dancer”. Marlowe is hired by elderly General Sternwood, whose sexy young daughter Carmen is being blackmailed. The General’s other daughter Vivien, a sexy divorcee, is also in trouble. This takes Our Man Marlowe through a maze involving murder, money, and sexy dames by the truckload, all of whom seem to want the sleuth. It’s tough to tell all the players without a scorecard, but that doesn’t really matter. Hawks’ take on Chandler is all about noir style, and the film has it in spades! The hard-boiled, hard-bitten dialog by screenwriters William Faulkner, Jules Furthman , and Leigh Brackett is delivered in that trademark “rat-a-tat” Warner Brothers style by the cast, the dark, moody photography by Sidney Hickox perfectly captures the noir world inhabited by the characters, the studio-bound fog-shrouded streets look marvelous, and everybody’s hiding some sort of secret. Even the opening credits literally scream noir, with Bogie and Bacall smoking cigarettes in silhouette, then placing the burning butts in an ashtray as Max Steiner’s sweeping music plays under the credits.

THE BIG SLEEP was filmed in 1945, but when TO HAVE AND HAVE NOT lit up the screen (and the box office) like a comet, the studio decided to take advantage of its newfound star team and shoot additional scenes featuring Bogie and Bacall. The couple’s pairing was steamier than General Sternwood’s orchid-filled hothouse, their sexually charged banter flowing freer than bootleg gin (check out their “horse racing” metaphors for example!).  I loved the way Bogart tugs at his ear whenever he’s in deep thought, and Bacall’s still sexiness covers the fact she’s fairly new to the acting game at this point in her career. Tongues are placed firmly in cheek as they trade repartee, and if their first film together established them as a force to be reckoned with, THE BIG SLEEP certainly seals the deal.

The supporting cast is more than up to the task of keeping up with Bogie and Bacall’s star power. Twenty year old Martha Vickers (whose noir bona fides include RUTHLESS, THE BIG BLUFF, and THE BURGLAR) is the sexy (there’s that word again!) Carmen, a babyish bimbo constantly biting her thumb like a pacifier (or more likely, an oral fixation!). John Ridgley (who appeared with Bogart on eleven other occasions) has the pivotal role of gambling joint owner Eddie Mars. You can’t have a film noir without inviting Elisha Cook Jr. to the party, and he’s here in a small role as (what else?) a weasel trying to sell Marlowe some information. Young Dorothy Malone made a splash as a book store owner sharing rye (and whatever else gets left to the imagination!) with the shamus. Cowboy star Bob Steele plays ice-cold killer Canino, an archetype he’d return to in Bogart’s 1951 THE ENFORCER. Familiar Faces dotting the dark landscape include Trevor Bardette , Tanis Chandler (no relation to Raymond!), Joseph Crehan, Bess Flowers , Louis Jean Heydt, Peggy Knudsen, Regis Toomey (as Marlowe’s cop friend), Theodore von Eltz, and Ben Welden.

Howard Hawks mastered any film genre he worked in, from screwball comedy (HIS GIRL FRIDAY) to wild Western ( RIO BRAVO ), during his fifty-four year Hollywood career. In THE BIG SLEEP, Hawks injects the dark world of film noir with his personal artistic vision, and paints a black & white masterpiece with shadows and light. Bogart inhabits the character of Philip Marlowe like a well-worn trench coat, Bacall is the quintessential Hawks “hard dame”, and the overlapping staccato dialog is filled with a sly, sexy sense of humor. Don’t worry about following the story, just sit back and enjoy Hawks and his stars at the top of their game!

Want more Marlowe? Just follow these links:

Philip Marlowe, TV Detective

Philip Marlowe’s Hollywood history saw the shamus portrayed on the big screen by some very big names. Dick Powell, Humphrey Bogart, Robert Montgomery, George Montgomery, James Garner, Elliott Gould, and Robert Mitchum (twice) all played Raymond Chandler’s hard-boiled private eye at one point in their careers, with varying degrees of success. Los Angeles’ favorite detective also appeared on the small screen, and I decided to do some sleuthing and investigate the TV life of Philip Marlowe.

MARLOWE LIVE!

It was Robert Montgomery who first brought Marlowe into America’s living rooms on his anthology series ROBERT MONTGOMERY PRESENTS. But this time around, Zachary Scott played the gumshoe in a 1950 adaptation of THE BIG SLEEP. Marlowe fans would have a four year wait until he came back in another anthology, CLIMAX! hosted by William Lundigan. This time around, Dick Powell returned to the role in a 1954 telecast of THE LONG GOODBYE. There’s not a lot of info on these, and I couldn’t dig up any footage. The two programs, like many live 50’s TV shows, seem to have been lost to the sands of time.

PHILIP CAREY TAKES OVER!

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Rugged Philip Carey starred in the 1959-60 primetime series PHILIP MARLOWE on ABC. These compact half hours feature tough dialogue and action, and while they’re not vintage Marlowe, they’re not bad. William Schallert costarred as Marlowe’s police frenemy, Lt. Manny Harris. The show only lasted one season, smoked in the ratings by the popular Red Skelton variety show. It’s available on YouTube, and here’s an episode titled “The Ugly Duckling”, with future MISSION:IMPOSSIBLE star Barbara Bain as the sexy femme fatale:

MY FAVORITE MARLOWE

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HBO brought back Chandler’s hero for two seasons in the early 80’s. PHILIP MARLOWE, PRIVATE EYE was a stylish noir series starring Powers Boothe (SOUTHERN COMFORT, RED DAWN) in mysteries based on Chandler’s original short stories. It was shown erratically, first airing in 1983, then in 1986 with a new batch of programs. It’s the best TV Marlowe I’ve seen, and Boothe is excellent as the hard luck Marlowe. It’s not in public domain, so I can’t reproduce an episode, but PHILIP MARLOWE, PRIVATE EYE is available on DVD (and many of them are on YouTube!) Definitely worth seeking out for all you Marlowe maniacs.

 A PAIR OF WILD DEUCES

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There were two interesting if not completely successful Marlowe productions on Showtime. The 1995 series FALLEN ANGELS featured Danny Glover as a black Marlowe in Chandler’s RED WIND. Despite the moody atmosphere and solid support from Kelly Lynch and Dan Hedaya, this attempt at a different Marlowe falls short of the mark. tvm4

Marlowe returned older but not wiser in 1998’s POODLE SPRINGS, based on an unfinished Chandler manuscript that was finished by Robert B. Parker of Spenser fame.  Parker’s PI was in the Marlowe mold, and he was the logical successor to the crown. The film starred James Caan as Marlowe, set in 1963, as he’s about to marry a rich younger woman. But Philip Marlowe can’t seem to stay out of trouble’s way. Though this one has it’s moments, it’s lesser Marlowe, despite a Tom Stoppard script and good support from Joe Don Baker, David Keith, and Nia Peeples. It’s worth a look for fans and completists.

WHERE HAVE YOU GONE, PHILIP MARLOWE?

It’s been eighteen years since we’ve seen any Marlowe action on TV. The iconic detective deserves to be resurrected by some enterprising producer, whether on broadcast, cable, or the newer subscription services. I’m sure we haven’t seen the last of Philip Marlowe on television. Somewhere in Hollywood, there’s a hard-boiled scribe with a headful of noir dreams hunched over his-or-her keyboard, banging out a script that’ll bring the Knight Errant of LA back to his days of glory. Until then, there’s a whole lot of film and television Marlowe’s out there waiting to be rediscovered. Philip Marlowe will rise again!

Marlowe at the Movies Pt 2: LADY IN THE LAKE (MGM 1947)

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Raymond Chandler’s Philip Marlowe stories are all done in first-person narrative, so it must have seemed logical to director/star Robert Montgomery to shoot THE LADY IN THE LAKE in the subjective point-of-view. Aside from a few brief narration scenes, we see everything through the eyes of Marlowe. The actors play straight to the camera, doubling for the private eye. Does it work? Well….I guess that all depends on YOUR point of view!

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“My name is Marlowe”, the film begins, as we see him sitting at his office desk. He relates the tale of how he submitted a short story to a pulp magazine, and received a reply from an editor named “A. Fromsett”. The movie is told in flashback, and now the POV changes to that of Marlowe’s for the bulk of the story. We meet A. Fromsett, who’s a gorgeous woman named Adrienne. She likes his story, but has an ulterior motive: Adrienne wants to hire Marlowe to find her publisher’s missing wife Crystal, a “liar, a cheat, and a thief” who’s run off to Mexico for a quickie divorce. Marlowe doesn’t trust Adrienne or her motives, but the perennial down-on-his-luck gumshoe takes the case.

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The effect of Adrienne speaking directly to the camera is off-putting at first and lends an artificial quality to the film as a whole. I could clearly see the actors acting, playing to the camera, and as a result I wasn’t as engrossed in the story as I was in MURDER MY SWEET. The novelty of the first-person POV wore off quicker than a Monday morning hangover. It distracts from the story, rather than pulling me in as intended. It’s one of the reasons I don’t enjoy all those “found-footage” films of recent vintage.

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Robert Montgomery’s first directorial effort is an interesting but ultimately disappointing film. Montgomery himself is another reason I didn’t like LADY IN THE LAKE as much as I thought I would.  Even though we mostly just hear his voice, I didn’t find him sufficiently “hard-boiled” enough to be convincing as Marlowe. I would’ve preferred cast member Lloyd Nolan in the role, and had Montgomery switch off to play Nolan’s Lt. Degarmot. Nolan had plenty of gumshoe experience, playing Bret Halliday’s pulp detective Michael Shayne in seven films (including TIME TO KILL, an adaptation of Chandler’s The Brasher Dubloon). He also stood out in films like BATAAN, A TREE GROWS IN BROOKLYN, A HATFUL OF RAIN, PEYTON PLACE, THE GIRL HUNTERS (with author Mickey Spillane playing his own hard-boiled P.I., Mike Hammer), ICE STATION ZEBRA, and AIRPORT. Nolan also portrayed cranky Dr. Chegley on the groundbreaking late 60’s sitcom JULIA, starring Diahann Carroll.    

Audrey Totter (Adrienne), a noir queen featured  in THE POSTMAN ALWAYS RINGS TWICE, THE UNSUSPECTED, and THE SET-UP, later joined the cast of TV’s MEDICAL CENTER as head Nurse Wilcox. Other Familiar Faces in THE LADY IN THE LAKE include Tom Tully, Jayne Meadows (better known as Mrs. Steve Allen), Leon Ames, Morris Ankrum , and Richard Simmons. No, not the 80’s fitness guru, this Richard Simmons later gained fame in the 1950’s series SGT. PRESTON OF THE YUKON. Also appearing briefly as Adrienne’s shapely secretary (who Marlowe can’t keep his eyes off of) is Lila Leeds, noted as Robert Mitchum’s accomplice in that famous 1947 pot bust (just follow this link).

Miss Lila Leeds
Miss Lila Leeds

THE LADY IN THE LAKE is to me a failed experiment in the film noir genre. I think I would have liked it better if director Montgomery had shot it in the usual objective POV, and stepped back to allow Lloyd Nolan to play Marlowe. Then again, that’s just MY point of view. I’m sure there are fans of this film out there who have their own. What do all you Cracked Rear Viewers think?

Marlowe at the Movies Pt 1: MURDER, MY SWEET (RKO 1944)

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The first film to depict Raymond Chandler’s iconic private eye Phillip Marlowe was 1944’s MURDER, MY SWEET. Forty year old Dick Powell had spent the past decade playing romantic leads in musicals, and felt the time was right to change his screen image. Powell did just that as the cynical, wisecracking Marlowe, under the direction of a young up-and-comer named Edward Dmytryk.  Together they made one of the best Chandler adaptations ever, closely adhering to the complicated plot of the novel “Farewell, My Lovely”.

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When we first meet Marlowe, he’s wearing a blindfold and being grilled by the cops for a murder rap. The sleuth states he’s gonna give the lowdown on what really occurred, and the LA bulls are all ears as Marlowe relates the tale through flashback. The gumshoe was sitting in his office, minding his own business, when big Moose Malloy walks in and asks Marlowe to “find someone’, a red-headed dame named Velma who Moose had a thing with eight years ago before getting sent up the river. The big lug’s pretty persuasive, so Marlowe accompanies Moose to Florian’s, a gin joint where Velma was once employed as a singer. No one in the dump recalls Velma, so Marlowe tracks down Mrs. Florian, the widow of the late owner. The booze soaked old broad tells him Velma’s dead, but Marlowe isn’t quite so sure. Next day a dandy named Marriott shows at Marlowe’s place and hires him as a bodyguard. Seems there was a stick-up involving a woman Marriott’s been seeing, and her jewels are being held for ransom. That night Marlowe and his new employer take a ride to a desolate location, and the detective gets knocked on the noggin by a blackjack.

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“A black pool opened at my feet. It had no bottom”. When Marlowe wakes, he finds Marriott dead in the backseat. Things get pretty thick from here, with beautiful dames, a phony psychic, and a rich old man all involved in the chaos, Moose Malloy lurking around, and the coppers always looking to play pin the tail on Marlowe. Marlowe gets beaten, shot at, deceived,  and drugged as he puts all the pieces together and solves the mystery, getting the girl in the end as a bonus for his troubles. A Raymond Chandler plot is always pretty dense, and I won’t spoil all the twists and turns along the way. The film’s never boring and you may figure it out before the sleuth, but you’ll sure have fun doing it.

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Dick Powell’s great as Marlowe, quick with a quip but hard when he needs to be. After years as the fair-haired boy in musicals like 42ND STREET, GOLD DIGGERS OF 1933, ON THE AVENUE, and IN THE NAVY, this movie gave him a new lease on life as a noir antihero. Films like JOHNNY O’CLOCK, PITFLL, and RIGHT CROSS put Powell back on top. He branched out into television, forming Four Star Productions with pals David Niven, Charles Boyer, and Ida Lupino in 1952. Powell himself was host of two successful anthology series, ZANE GREY THEATER and THE DICK POWELL SHOW. He also became a film director, with some hits (the submarine drama THE ENEMY BELOW starring Robert Mitchum) and misses (THE CONQUEROR, with John Wayne as Genghis Khan!).

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Sultry Claire Trevor nearly melts the screen with her smoldering sexiness as Helen Grayle, who’s not all she seems to be. “Queen of Noir” Trevor’s been discussed here before (BORN TO KILL, STAGECOACH), and she’s never been better than in MURDER, MY SWEET. Lovely young Anne Shirley (Anne) started as silent child star Dawn O’Day, changing her screen name after playing the title role in 1934’s ANNE OF GREEN GABLES. She was Oscar nominated for STELLA DALLAS, and this was her last movie role. Suave Otto Kruger (Anthor) did his villainous thing in Hitchcock’s SABOTUER, director Dmytryk’s HITLER’S CHILDREN, the noir 711 OCEAN DRIVE, and Universal’s JUNGLE CAPTIVE. He had a rare hero role in 1936’s DRACULA’S DAUGHTER. The Grand Old Dame of Noir Esther Howard (Mrs. Florian) is on hand, as she was in DETOUR, CHAMPION, and the previously mentioned BORN TO KILL. Miles Mander (Grayle) was a character actor noted for THE THREE MUSKETEERS, WUTHERING HEIGHTS, and HOUSE OF SEVEN GABLES.

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We’ve discussed Mike Mazurki’s background before here, so let me just give him a round of applause for his Moose Malloy. It’s his biggest role, and probably his best work on film. The massive, dim-witted Moose has a one-track mind, and that’s to find his Velma. Moose looms large both physically and figuratively in MURDER, MY SWEET, and Mazurki gives his all. Don’t let the man’s size and blank expression fool you, Mike Mazurki could act when given the opportunity, and he shines here like a rough diamond. Hats off to the former professional wrestling giant!

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Edward Dmytryk worked his way from the editing room to directing B features with sleuths Boston Blackie and the Lone Wolf, and horror flicks with Boris Karloff (THE DEVIL COMMANDS) and John Carradine (CAPTIVE WILD WOMAN). MURDER, MY SWEET was his big break, followed by hits like BACK TO BATAAN and CROSSFIRE. Dmytryk was blacklisted and did prison time as one of the Hollywood Ten during the House Un-American Activities “Red Menace” hearings, and it seemed his career was over. But in 1951, he named names, and was soon back in Hollywood’s good graces. Ironically, he directed the court-martial drama THE CAINE MUTINY, which had some parellells to the HUAC investigations. Dmytryk’s other later films included THE YOUNG LIONS, Harold Robbins’ soapy Hollywood story THE CARPETBAGGERS, and the Richard Burton black comedy BLUEBEARD.

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Chandler’s Farewell, My Lovely filmed once before, in a 1942 adaptation THE FALCON TAKES OVER, with George Sanders’ sophisticated sleuth standing in for Marlowe. The story was remade in 1975 as an homage to noirs past, with icon Robert Mitchum stepping into Marlowe’s gumshoes. I haven’t seen the Sanders/Falcon take on it, but I’ve watched both the Powell and Mitchum versions. I couldn’t say which I liked better, because they’re both worth watching. MURDER, MY SWEET was the first Philip Marlowe flick though, and that alone is reason to watch it. The performances are all good, there’s plenty of hard-boiled dialogue to savor, and the RKO noir magic is on display. There’s only one thing better than a Philip Marlowe movie: read the books!       

PREVIEWS OF COMING ATTRACTIONS

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One of my favorite fictional characters has always been Raymond Chandler’s hard-boiled private eye Philip Marlowe. The wisecracking Sir Galahad of the streets inspired a plethora of imitators, and has been portrayed onscreen by the likes of Humphrey Bogart and Robert Mitchum, among others. This week, we’ll take a look at three films featuring the iconic detective:

Dick Powell in MURDER, MY SWEET

Robert Montgomery in LADY IN THE LAKE

Robert Altman’s THE LONG GOODBYE

Plus: Philip Marlowe on the small screen!